1 thought on “What are the Chinese sculptures (1)?”

  1. The original form of the original sculpture of China is a pottery product, which is inseparable from the actual value. First, the shape of the animal's shape, such as the pottery eagle unearthed from the Yangshao cultural site, is 36 cm high, with the eagle body as a tripod, with two -footed three branches, and the shape of the device is full. One of the representative works; the second is the sculpture of the decoration part, including animals, plants, characters, and so on. The avatar of the pottery bottle unearthed from the Gansu Daxi Bay can be described as the beginning of the sculptures of Chinese people. The author cleverly shapes the mouth of the ceramic bottle into a person's avatar, which is delicate and vivid; the third is that small animals or characters pinch plastic. This kind of small sculpture is made by ancient craftsmen without any tools. The shape is small. With strong humanity. The pottery pigs unearthed from the Culture site of Zhejiang Henu Culture may be the oldest sculpture in the Jiangnan area of ​​my country, which has been 7,000 years ago. Although the work is only 6.3 cm, its image is very vivid, and the sculptor's observation of life is delicate.
    The bronze wares of the business and weekly period are cultural phenomena in Henan Erlitou, the 17th century BC to the 17th century BC. Like the nature of the original pottery, the bronze in the Shang and Zhou Dynasty is not a sculpture in the actual sense, but is used for practical utensils such as sacrifice, life, musical instruments, weapons, tools, etc. Historians call Xia, Shang, and Zhou as the Bronze Age. These large amounts of bronze are occupied by slave owners, and they are also symbols of some kind of rule, authority, and wealth.
    The Qin Dynasty has developed significantly in sculpture. The most noticeable is the large potter and horse warriors and copper and horses. After Qin Shihuang swallowed the six countries, he established the Qin dynasty to unify currency, text, measurement, etc. The theme of the sculpture of the Qin Dynasty was closer to life, and from the functional point of view, it gradually became independent. The Qin Dynasty inherited the simplicity of the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, and his works became realistic. The overall sculpture style of the Qin and Han dynasties is relatively magnificent, emphasizing strength and momentum.
    The Han Dynasty was the most powerful period in the feudal society in China. For example, Huo went to the illness of the Western Han Dynasty, and there are still a group of outstanding stone carving art works, which are created to commemorate the famous Western Han Dynasty star Huo Qubu. The Huns Hun Huns high 190 centimeters. The author used a metaphorical technique to reflect Huo Qubing's mobility and great achievements, and fully reflects the generality of commemorative sculptures. The entire sculpture is integrated, and there is no space between the limbs, which enhances the weight of the body and quantity.
    During the Three Kingdoms, the two Jin Dynasty, and the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the sculpture art of my country was fully developed. The prevalence of Buddhism has prompted the art of Buddha statues to flourish, changing the appearance of the history of Chinese sculpture, and the sculptures of characters are more mature.
    The first type of Buddha statue art is the form of a grotto, Dunhuang Grottoes, Bingling Temple Grottoes, Xinjiang Pay City Kizil Grottoes, etc., all have clear annual questions; Jishan Grottoes, Zhangye Horseshoe Temple Grottoes, Ningxia Guyuan Sumi Mountain Grottoes, Yungang Grottoes in Datong, Shanxi, Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang in Henan, Handan Handan, Handan, and Nanjing Qixia Mountain Grottoes in Jiangsu.
    Itti resumed centralization in the Sui Dynasty, and in the short term, the situation of agriculture, work, and business prosperity and prosperity appeared. Buddhism is still the main tool of ideological rule, and the rulers have vigorously restored the Buddhist temples and statues destroyed by Emperor Wu of the Northern Zhou Dynasty. The main achievements are concentrated on the statue of the grotto. Among them, the most representative is the Mogao Grottoes of Dunhuang, Maijishan Grottoes, and Jinan Yushan Grottoes. The main feature of its shape is that it is generally more healthy and full of body. But another feature of this period -it can also be said to be weak, that is, the imbalance in proportion, and some works are obviously not reasonable in structure and proportion. Essence This is a period of transitional development. The sculpture art of my country has opened a brighter prelude from the Sui Dynasty.
    The sculpture art in the Tang Dynasty was mainly reflected in religious statues and tombs. However, during this period, with the development of process technology, the use of materials is more abundant. In addition to stone carvings, wood carvings, and ceramics, it also uses a large number of process materials such as clamps and copper.
    The sculpture style in the early Tang Dynasty, basically the traces of the previous generation (Northern and Sui Dynasty) were still left. The promotion of prosperity began in the early Tang Dynasty, but the shaping of women was not as lively and moving as during the Tang Dynasty. The vigorous development of socioeconomic and economy has also changed the concept of religious concepts. In the Tang Dynasty, the overall social appearance was more optimistic and open -minded, and Buddhist art also had a secular tendency. The characters in painting and sculpture were close to the image of real life.
    The Buddhist statues in the Tang Dynasty were very large, which were mainly reflected in the cave and cliff stone carvings. The existing relics are mostly concentrated in Xinjiang Kizil Grottoes, Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang, Gansu, Tianshui Maiji Mountain, Shanxi Tianlongshan Grottoes, Binfo Temple in Bin County, Shaanxi, Xiangtang Mountain Grottoes, Henan Longmen Grottoes, Shandong Yunmen Mountain Grottoes, Sichuan Guangyuan Qianfo Cliff, Leshan Cliff Stone Carvings, Yunnan Jianchuan Grottoes, etc.
    of which, the largest scale and the most obvious artistic characteristics, the first Dunhuang. The caves excavated during the Tang Dynasty accounted for half of all Dunhuang Grottoes. The statue of the bodhisattva shaped, from the image and dress, basically based on the typical image of the beauty at that time, the semi -sitting sitting style of one leg and a sagging of one leg appeared. The secular beauty has broken the atmosphere of religious imprisonment, and emphasizes artistic effects, and seems to talk to the worshipers. We can compare the works of the famous figures and painters of the contemporaries Zhang Xuan, Zhou Yan, and others. It can be seen that they have the same wonderful work between them, and in terms of body proportions and instrument shapes, they are more vibrant. Compared with the solemnity and birth of the art of religious sculpture, the Buddhist statues of the Tang Dynasty combined the ideals with reality well, with both a dignified and elegant side; There is also a soft and delicate side. The character sculptures of the Tang Dynasty also paid great attention to the character of the characters, especially when dealing with the relationship between the group sculptures, and grasped the internal emotional exchanges between the characters. For example, the shaping of the Buddha and his disciples, Gaga, and Ananda have a variety of images. The two characters are old and one, one is the image of the Han people, and the other is the image of the Indian people. But they can still see their mood. For another example, the statue of the mana protector, its job director determines their strong and mighty image. The facial expression is fierce and the muscles of the limbs are developed. Different character statues are combined with the relationship between the relationship between the characters of the group, highlighting the center, which is in line with the formal rules of the beauty of sculpture.
    The historical stage of Song, Liao, and Jin, sculpture art has a different style of style, and also produces some influential works, but in general, it is not as good as the Han and Tang dynasties. There is no important position in the history of art.
    Compared with the art of painting in the Song Dynasty, the achievement of sculpture art is far behind, which has a lot to do with the ruler's goodness and attention. Palace painters selected through similar science systems have high cultivation, while the employees of the sculpture industry do not get attention and even subject to discrimination. With the rise of literati paintings, the social status of sculpture artists has become humble, and it is not surprising that such modeling art is declining.
    The Northern Song Dynasty has been constantly invaded by foreign ethnic groups, and there is almost no intention to build large -scale grottoes like the Tang Dynasty. Some of the small -scale grottoes were left. For example, in the Wanfo Cave Grottoes in Qing'an Qingliangshan, Fan Zhongyan in the Northern Song Dynasty had recorded poems. Another example is the Shikong Temple Grottoes of Zishang County. From the perspective of the inscriptions, its excavation era was in the Northern Song Dynasty. The best part was the portrait of the Luohan group. There are many in the Song Dynasty in the stone carvings of Sichuan, and there are a lot of representative. It uses the natural mountains, the cliff wall is stuck, the project is huge and the content is complicated. The most important part is the Western Bliss World. There are many characters, the scenes are complicated, but the layers are clear and detailed. The neighbor is the disguise of hell, which realizes the tragedy of the victims in hell, and reproduces the scenes of various daily life with realistic carving methods. These stone carvings are carved on a cliff 4-14 meters from the ground, with a total length of more than 500 meters. It has been constructed for decades before and after. The relationship between sculptures is closely and connected to each other. The entire layout is tall and complete, the sculpting techniques are skilled, and the details are vivid. For example, a chicken -breed woman's image in hell is completely based on real life. Another important part of Dazu stone carvings is hard disk slopes, Guanyinpo, Buddha Rock, Beita Temple and other places. The whole excavation lasted more than 250 years. There should be one of the many supporting artificial statues that should be paid attention to, all of which show their identity, status and engraving age. This is a rare physical material to study the history of the Song Dynasty. Fei Laifeng in Hangzhou, Zhejiang also has a relatively concentrated Song Dynasty sculpture. Although the size is not large, its artistic level accounts for a relatively important position in the sculpture of the Song Dynasty.
    The cultural and artistic characteristics of the Ming Dynasty obviously traces of traces of the style of Tang and Song. In a large number of temples, there are all kinds of idols, which are becoming more secular and folk in terms of subject matter to expressive methods. The cave carving is close to the end. Although there are still Ming Dynasty works in large -scale caves such as Dunhuang, as far as its artistic value is concerned, it can no longer be mentioned for the history of sculpture. Thirteen Tombs have now become a well -known tourist attraction in Beijing. It is located in Changping County. It is a concentrated area of ​​the tomb of 13 emperors in the Ming Dynasty.
    The thirteenth tomb is a sculpture group arranged by the Chengzu Changling. It is consistent with Xiaoling, but it is different from the previous generation. There are 2 pairs of unicorn, 2 pairs of stone lions, 2 pairs of Chinese tables, 6 pairs of stone horses and stone characters, 4 pairs of stone tigers, 4 pairs of stone sheep, 2 pairs of officials, 28 pairs of servants, this Shinto is now thirteen In the common Shinto, the other 12 tombs do not have their respective Shinto sculptures. Only archway, palace gate, monument pavilion and other buildings are set up. The stone carvings of the Thirteen Mausoleum are larger than Xiaoling. From the overall style, although there are relatively fine technical treatment, compared with the previous generation, it lacks artistic vitality and has the tendency of conceptualization.
    In the history of Chinese sculptures, the tomb sculpture of the Qing Dynasty was already ending.
    The urban industrial and commercial economy in the Qing Dynasty was further prosperous, handicraft technology has been greatly developed, and the art of craft sculpture has also received unprecedented attention. The court set up a specialized agency to urge and organize production. There are some excellent smells such as lacquer, stone carvings, dental carvings, wood carvings, porcelain plastic, metal casting and other art categories, and many excellent carving masters have appeared.

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